Prof. Wim Van Neer

Head of section, Palaeontologist
Wim Van Neer
Contact
Phone:
+32 (0)2 627 44 38
Fax:
+32 2 627 41 13
Key Publications
W. Van Neer and Ervynck, A. , Defining {`}natural' fish communities for fishery management purposes: biological, historical and archaeological approaches, in Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Hoffmann, B. S. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2010, pp. 193-223.
Key Projects
As promoter:
  • DWTC Research project (MO/37/007) Restoration and valorisation of the primate collections (2002-2005)
  • Conventions with the Service Public de Wallonie, Dépt. du Patrimoine for bioarchaeological studies (since 1998)
  • Conventions between the KBIN and the Brussels Capital Region for analysis of animal and human bone (since 2007) 
  • Conventions between the KBIN and the Brussels Capital Region for analysis of botanical remains (since 2008)
As co-promoter:

  Interuniversitary Poles of Attraction (IUAP/PAI/IAP)

  • IAP II/28 Interdisciplinary archaeology (1990-1996)
  • IAP IV/12 Interdisciplinary research regarding settlement development, palaeoecology and palaeoeconomy in the Roman West and East (1997-2001)
  • IAP V/9: Urban and rural transformation in the western and eastern Roman Empire. Interdisciplinary archaeology of late antique and early medieval times (2002-2006)
  • IAP VI/22: The transition from Republic to Empire: The impact of Romanization on cities and countryside in Italy and the provinces (2nd/1st century BC- 2nd/3rd century AD) (2007-2012)
   Projects of the Fund for Scientific Research Flanders
  • FWO G.0215.96 The Chora of Sagalassos. An interdisciplinary study of the relationship between city and countryside, based upon settlement pattern archaeology and the human exploitation of the physical, vegetational and animal environment (1996-1999)
  • FWO G.0245.02 Domesticity and crafts at Sagalassos. Houses and (work)shops as sources for the cultural, socio-demographic and economic development of the Roman city. (2002-2005)
  • FWO G.0421.06 Roman and (early) Byzantine provincial towns as production-, consumption- and distribution centers. A case study: Sagalassos and its territory (1st-7th/13th century AD) (2006-2009)
  Projects financed through the DOC/Research Coordination at the K.U.Leuven 
  • Concerted Action GOA 97/01 Economy and Ecology of Roman Sagalassos (1997-2001)
  • Concerted Action GOA 02/02 City and Suburbs at Sagalassos. An Interdisciplinary Study of the Growth of an Urban Settlement and the Interrelation with its Surroundings (2002-2006)
  • Concerted Action GOA 07/02 Sagalassos and its Countryside from Late Antiquity to the Byzantine Period. Urban and Rural Settlement Development, Economy and Trade during the Transition from the Late Roman to the Early Byzantine (4th to 7th centuries AD) and during the Mid-Byzantine Period (later 7th to 12/13th centuries AD) (2007-2011). 
  • Excellence Financing, KU Leuven: Centre for Archaeological Sciences (2005-2009)
  • Excellence Financing, KU Leuven: Centre for Archaeological Sciences 2 (2010-2017)
  International projects
  • EU-project FAIR PL97-3462 Diachronic changes in growth rate of North Sea fish in relation to anthropogenic activities (1998-2000)
  • Leverhulme Trust research grant F/00 224/S Investigating the origins of commercial sea fishing in medieval Europe (2005-2008)
Professional experiences

01/01/2005 > ongoing: senior scientist

Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

01/04/1988 > 31/12/2004: curator

curator at the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum of Central Africa

01/10/1995 > ongoing: part-time professor

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

01/11/1987 > 28/02/1988: maître de conférences

Musée national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France

01/12/1985 > 31/07/1987: postdoc researcher

University Köln, fellow of the von Humboldt Foundation , Germany
Academic training

01/10/1976 > 31/10/1981: Doctor in de Wetenschappen

Doctor in de Wetenschappen
KU Leuven

01/02/1978 > 28/02/1978: Geaggregeerde Hoger Secundair Onderwijs

Licentiaat Wetenschappen (groep Dierkunde)
KU Leuven

01/10/1972 > 30/09/1976: Licentiaat Wetenschappen

KU Leuven

2014

E. Meylemans, Jacops, J. , Bogemans, F. , Deforce, K. , Ervynck, A. , Lentacker, A. , Perdaen, Y. , Storme, A. , Van Neer, W. , and Vanmontfort, B. , Archeologisch evaluatieonderzoek van een prehistorische vindplaats (mesolithicum tot vroege bronstijd) in het Sigma- gebied 'Zennegat' (Mechelen, prov. Antwerpen). Brussel: Onroerend Erfgoed, 2014.
E. Meylemans, Perdaen, Y. , Bogemans, F. , De Clercq, W. , Deforce, K. , Ervynck, A. , Lentacker, A. , Storme, A. , and Van Neer, W. , Archeologisch evaluatieonderzoek van een prehistorische en Romeinse vindplaats in het Sigma- gebied 'Wijmeers 2' (gemeente Wichelen,provincie Oost-Vlaanderen). Brussel: Agentschap Onroerend Erfgoed, 2014.
C. Draily, Court-Picon, M. , Damblon, F. , De Wilde, B. , Juvigné, E. , Pirson, S. , Stewart, J. , Toussaint, M. , Van Neer, W. , and Wouters, W. , La grotte Walou, un site exceptionnel du Paléolithique, in Carnets du Patrimoine, vol. 120, C. Draily Institut du Patrimoine wallon, 2014, p. 40p.
V. Linseele, Van Neer, W. , Thys, S. , Phillipps, R. , Cappers, R. , Wendrich, W. , and Holdaway, S. , New Archaeozoological Data from the Fayum {`}{`}Neolithic'' with a Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Early Stock Keeping in Egypt, Plos One, vol. 9(10), 2014.

2012

A. Ervynck, Deckers, P. , Lentacker, A. , Tys, D. , and Van Neer, W. , {`}Leffinge - Oude Werf': the first archaeozoological collection from a terp settlement in coastal Flanders, in A bouquet of archaeozoological studies. Essays in honour of Wietske Prummel, R. D., E., E. , R., L. , and J., Z. Groningen: Barkhuis, 2012, pp. 153-162.
F. Pigière, Van Neer, W. , Ansieau, C. , and Denis, M. , L'introduction du cobaye en Europe peu après la conquête de l'Amérique: apport des données archéozoologiques provenant de la ville de Mons, La Lettre du Patrimoine, vol. 26, p. 6, 2012.

2011

M. Derreumaux, Pigière, F. , Wouters, W. , and Van Neer, W. , Arlon/Arlon : une sauce de poissons gauloise dans le vicus d'Arlon, approche archéozoologique et carpologique, Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne, vol. 18, pp. 186-188, 2011.

2010

M. Waelkens, Poblome, J. , Claeys, J. , Lefere, M. , Van Neer, W. , Corremans, M. , and Baeten, J. , De Thermen (RB). Hoe de {`}Keizerlijke Thermen' het oudste Romeinse badcomplex van Anatolië verbergen en zelf eindigen als banketzaal, in Sagalassos-Jaarboek 2009. De Late Oudheid (ca. 200-450/455 n. Chr.). Het jaarverslag van de campagne van 2009, W. M. Peeters, 2010, pp. 224-258.
W. Van Neer and Ervynck, A. , Defining {`}natural' fish communities for fishery management purposes: biological, historical and archaeological approaches, in Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Hoffmann, B. S. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2010, pp. 193-223.
H. Vanhaverbeke, Waelkens, M. , Vyncke, K. , De Laet, V. , Aydal, S. , Music, B. , De Cupere, B. , Poblome, J. , Braekmans, D. , Degryse, P. , Marinova, E. , Verstraeten, G. , Van Neer, W. , Šlapšak, B. , Medarič, I. , Ekinci, H. , and Erbay, M. , {`}Pisidian' culture? The Classical-Hellenistic site at Düzen Tepe near Sagalassus (southwest Turkey), Anatolian Studies, vol. 60, pp. 105-128, 2010.

2009

K. Magerman, Pede, R. , Lodewijckx, M. , Van Neer, W. , and Van de Vijver, K. , Een geplaveide Romeinse weg, religieuze keramiek, massa's dierlijk botmateriaal en andere Romeinse sporen aan de Nerviërsstraat in Asse (provincie Vlaams-Brabant), in Journée d'archéologie romaine. Romeinendag 2009. Brussel, 09-05-2009, 2009, pp. 5-12.
H. Willems, Vereecken, S. , Kuijper, L. , Vanthuyne, B. , Marinova, E. , Linseele, V. , Verstraeten, G. , Hendrickx, C. , Eyckerman, M. , Van den Broeck, A. , Van Neer, W. , Bourriau, J. , French, P. , Peeters, C. , De Laet, V. , Mortier, S. , and De Kooning, Z. , An Industrial Site at al Shaykh Sa'id/Wadi Zabayda, Ägypten und Levante: Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Archäologie und deren Nachbargebiete, vol. 19, pp. 293-331, 2009.

2008

S. Vanpoucke, Pigière, F. , Defgnée, A. , and Van Neer, W. , Tournai/Tournai, Antoing/Bruyelle et Pont-à-Celles/Luttre. L'élevage du porc et les conditions environnementales en région hainuyère pendant l'Antiquité et le Haut Moyen Age, Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne, vol. 15, pp. 88-92, 2008.
W. Van Neer and Parker, S. , First archaeozoological evidence for haimation, the {`}invisible' garum, Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 35, pp. 1821-1827, 2008.

2007

W. Van Neer, Udrescu, M. , and Wouters, W. , Namur/Namur: la faune mésolithique de l'ancienne Place Saint-Hilaire, Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne, vol. 14, pp. 180-181, 2007.

2006

W. Van Neer, Les restes fauniques de l'amas protohistorique de la Grande Batterie à Gorée (Sénégal), in La Grande Batterie de Gorée. Recherches archéologiques et historiques, F. . and Descamps, C. Gorée: Editions du Musée historique du Sénégal, 2006, pp. 177-182.
F. Pigière, Udrescu, M. , Van Neer, W. , and Wouters, W. , Namur/Namur: étude archéozoologique du site de la rue d'Harscamp, Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne, vol. 13, pp. 247-248, 2006.

2004

W. Van Neer and Ervynck, A. , Apport de l'archéozoologie à la connaissance de l'exploitation de l'eau douce au Moyen Age et à l'époque Moderne en Belgique, in Pêche et pisciculture en eau douce : la rivière et l'étang au Moyen Age. Actes des Premières Rencontres internationales de Liessies, 27, 28, 29 avril 1998, Lille, 2004.
F. Pigière, Udrescu, M. , and Van Neer, W. , Namur/Namur : étude archéozoologique des occupations de l'Antiquité tardive et du Haut Moyen Age au Grognon, Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne, vol. 12, pp. 240-241, 2004.
B. Clarys, Burnez-Lanotte, L. , Van Assche, M. , Van Neer, W. , and Udrescu, M. , L'occupation Michelsberg du site d'Ottenburg and Grez-Doiceau (Bt) : prospections systématiques et nouvelles perspectives de recherches, Amphora, vol. 82, pp. 1-48, 2004.

2002

W. Van Neer and Sidebotham, S. , Animal remains from the fourth-sixth century A.D. military installations near Abu Sha'ar at the Red Sea Coast, Egypt, in Tides of the desert - Gezeiten der Wüste. Contributions to the Archaeology and environmental history of Africa in honour of Rudolph Kuper. Africa Praehistorica, Köln: Heinrich-Barth-Institut, 2002, pp. ¨171-195.
H. Collet and Van Neer, W. , Stratigraphie et faune d'un puits d'extraction néolithique à Petit-Spiennes, Anthropologica et Praehistorica, vol. 113, pp. 73-104, 2002.

2001

S. Hendrickx, Midant-Reynes, B. , and Van Neer, W. , Mahgar Dendera 2 (Haute Egypte), un site d'occupation badarien. Universitaire Pers Leuven, 2001.
W. Van Neer, Restes de poissons provenant de contextes médiévaux et post-médiévaux dans l'{\^ı}lot Villers-Dinant, in Autour de la première enceinte / Rond de eerste stadsomwalling. Archéologie à Bruxelles/Archeologie in Brussel 43, T. P. Service des monuments et des sites de la re{\'}gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, 2001, pp. 316-323.

2000

W. Van Neer, Paulissen, E. , and Vermeersch, P. M. , Chronology, subsistence and environment of the Late Palaeolithic fishing sites of Makhadma -2 and 4, in Palaeolithic living sites in Upper and Middle Egypt, V. P.M. Leuven University Press, 2000, pp. 271-287.
M. Waelkens, Paulissen, E. , Vanhaverbeke, H. , Reyniers, J. , Poblome, J. , Degeest, R. , Viaene, W. , Deckers, J. , De Cupere, B. , Van Neer, W. , Ekinci, H. , and Erbay, M. , The 1996 and 1997 surveys on the territory of Sagalassos, in Sagalassos V: report on the survey and excavation campaigns of 1996 and 1997, W. M. and L., L. Leuven University Press, 2000, pp. 17-216.
W. Van Neer, Domestic animals from archaeological sites in Central and West-Central Africa, in Domestic animals from archaeological sites in Central and West-Central Africa, B. R. and K., M. D. UCL Press, 2000, pp. 163-190.
W. Van Neer, Wildekamp, R. , Küçük, F. , Ünlüsayin, M. , Waelkens, M. , and Paulissen, E. , Results of the 1996 survey of the fish fauna of the Aksu river and some lakes in southwestern Anatolia, and the implications for trade at Sagalassos, in Sagalassos V: report on the survey and excavation campaigns of 1996 and 1997 (series: Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae; nr. 11), W. M. and L., L. Leuven University Press, 2000, pp. 828-842.
M. Waelkens, Paulissen, E. , Van Neer, W. , Deckers, J. , Celis, D. , Schroyen, K. , Nackaerts, K. , De Cupere, B. , Librecht, I. , Vanhaverbeke, H. , Poblome, J. , Degeest, R. , Viaene, W. , Muchez, P. , Ottenburgs, R. , Smets, E. , Govers, G. , Vermoere, M. , Verstraeten, G. , Steegen, A. , Cauwenberghs, K. , Belke, K. , Hild, F. , Koder, J. , and Soustal, P. , Sagalassos und sein Territorium: eine interdisziplinäre Methodologie zur historischen Geographie einer kleinasiatischen Metropole, in Byzans als Raum. Zu Methoden und Inhalten der historischen Geographie des östlichen Mittelmeeraumes im Mittelalter. Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für die Tabula Imperii Byzantini, B. K., Friedrich, H. , Koder, J. , and P., S. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2000, pp. 261-288.
W. Van Neer, Animal remains, identification and analysis: fish, in Archaeological method and theory: an encyclopedia, E. L. Garland Publishing Inc., 2000, pp. 17-21.
W. Van Neer, Growth studies: fish otoliths, in Archaeological method and theory: an encyclopedia, E. L. Garland Publishing Inc., 2000, pp. 270-271.
P. M. Vermeersch, Paulissen, E. , Van Peer, P. , and Van Neer, W. , El Abadiya: a Shuwikhatian site, in Palaeolithic living sites in Upper and Middle Egypt, V. P.M. Leuven University Press, 2000, pp. 159-199.
W. Van Neer, Faunal remains from Shuwikhat 1, in Palaeolithic living sites in Upper and Middle Egypt, V. P.M. Leuven University Press, 2000, pp. 153-154.
W. Van Neer, Wildekamp, R. , Waelkens, M. , Arndt, A. , and Volckaert, F. , Fish as indicators of trade relationships in Roman times: the example of Sagalassos, Turkey, in Archaeozoology of the Near East IV. International symposium on the archaeozoology of southwestern Asia and adjacent areas. Paris, June 1998, Groningen, 2000, pp. 206-215.
C. Mbida, Van Neer, W. , Doutrelepont, H. , and Vrydaghs, L. , Evidence for banana cultivation and animal husbandry during the first millennium BC in the forest of southern Cameroon, Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 27, pp. 151-162, 2000.
B. De Cupere, Lentacker, A. , Van Neer, W. , Waelkens, M. , and Verslype, L. , Osteological evidence for the draught exploitation of cattle: First applications of a new methodology, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 10, pp. 254-267, 2000.
M. Uerpmann and Van Neer, W. , Fischreste aus den neuen Grabungen in Troia (1989-1999), Studia Troica, vol. 10, pp. 145-179, 2000.

1999

M. Mashkour and Van Neer, W. , Analyse des vestiges fauniques du fort et de la zone d'habitat de Mleiha (3e/4e siècles de notre ère), in Mleiha I : Environnement, Stratégies de Subsistance et Artisanats. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient 29, M. M. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient, 1999, pp. 121-144.
W. Van Neer, Fish remains at Abri du Pape, in L'Abri du Pape. Bivouacs, Enterrements et Cachettes sur la Haute Meuse belge: du Mésolithique au Bas Empire Romain (Etudes et Recherches Archéologiques de l'Université de Liège (ERAUL) 88), L. J., L., S. , and M., O. Université de Liège, 1999, pp. 129-140.
W. Van Neer and Ervynck, A. , The faunal remains, in Berenike {`}97. Report of the 1997 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, including Excavations at Shenshef. CNWS Publications. Special Series 4, S. S. and W., W. Leiden: CNWS, 1999, pp. 325-348.
A. Ervynck, Van Neer, W. , and Lentacker, A. , Introduction and extinction of wild animal species in historical times: the evidence from Belgium, in The Holocene History of the European Vertebrate Fauna. Modern Aspects of Research. Archäologie in Eurasien 6, B. N. Leidorf, 1999, pp. 399-407.
W. Van Neer and Ervynck, A. , Faunal remains from Shenshef and Kalalat, in Berenike {`}97. Report of the 1997 Excavations at Berenike and the Survey of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, including Excavations at Shenshef. CNWS Publications. Special Series 4, S. S. and W., W. Leiden: CNWS, 1999, pp. 431-444.
A. Gautier and Van Neer, W. , Etude générale de restes vertébrés de Mleiha, in Mleiha I : Environnement, Stratégies de Subsistance et Artisanats. Travaux de la Maison de l'Orient 29, M. M. Lyon: Maison de l'Orient, 1999, pp. 107-120.
W. Van Neer, Fish remains from the late Predynastic site of Maadi, Egypt, in Historia Animalium ex Ossibus. Beiträge zur Paläoanatomie, Archäologie, Ägyptologie, Ethnologie und Geschichte der Tiermedizin. Festschrift für Angela von den Driesch, B. C., H., M. , J., P. , and J., S. Leidorf, 1999, pp. 463-468.
A. Ervynck, Desender, K. , and Van Neer, W. , Archeozoölogisch onderzoek van middeleeuwse vindplaatsen op het IAP, Archaeologia Mediaevalis, vol. 22, pp. 5-6, 1999.
W. Van Neer and Breunig, P. , Contribution to the archaeozoology of the Brandberg, Namibia, Cimbebasia, vol. 15, pp. 127-140, 1999.
R. Wildekamp, Küçük, F. , Ünlüsayin, M. , and Van Neer, W. , The genus Aphanius Nardo 1827 (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) in Turkey, Turkish Journal of Zoology, vol. 23, pp. 23-44, 1999.
M. Pieters, Bouchet, F. , Cooremans, B. , Desender, K. , Ervynck, A. , and Van Neer, W. , Granaatappels, een zeeëngel en rugstreeppadden. Een greep uit de inhoud van een bakstenen beerput uit het 15de-eeuwse Raversijde (Oostende, prov. West-Vlaanderen), Archeologie in Vlaanderen, vol. 5, pp. 193-224, 1999.
W. Van Neer, L\õugas, L. , and Rijnsdorp, A. , Reconstructing age distribution, season of capture and growth rate of fish from archaeological sites based on otoliths and vertebrae, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 9, pp. 116-130, 1999.
W. Van Neer, Wildekamp, R. , Küçük, F. , and Ünlüsayin, M. , First inland records of the euryhaline goby Knipowitschia caucasica from lakes in Anatolia, Turkey, Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 54, pp. 1334-1337, 1999.
M. Waelkens, Paulissen, E. , Vermoere, M. , Degryse, P. , Celis, D. , Schroyen, K. , De Cupere, B. , Librecht, I. , Nackaerts, K. , Vanhaverbeke, H. , Viaene, W. , Muchez, P. , Ottenburgs, R. , Deckers, J. , Van Neer, W. , Smets, E. , Govers, G. , Verstraeten, G. , Steegen, A. , and Cauwenberghs, K. , Man and environment in the territory of Sagalassos, a classical city in SW Turkey, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 18, pp. 697-709, 1999.
F. Pigière, Lentacker, A. , Desender, K. , Gleed-Owen, C. , and Van Neer, W. , L'étude archéozoologique de la villa romaine de Bruyelle, in Le site de la “Haute Eloge” à Bruyelle-Antoing, B. K., N., B. , and F., P. SPW/DGO4, p. 47.
R. Brulet, Coquelet, C. , Defgnée, A. , De Longueville, S. , Pigière, F. , Verslype, L. , Van Neer, W. , and Vilvorder, F. , Les mutations des contextes urbains, ruraux et militaires en Gaule septentrionale, sous l'Antiquité tardive., supplementary volume of Babesch.
01/01/1993 to 31/12/2018

The Pleistocene fauna in Palaeolithic sites: the human-animal connection

Human-animal relationships during the Palaeolithic have often been regarded to be limited to subsistence related issues. Here, we propose to broaden the scope of this human-animal connection and include other dimensions like the hunting of pachyderms and small species, and the spiritual importance of hunted animals.
01/01/2009 to 31/12/2018

Prehistoric canids and the early domestication of the wolf

Our group has recently demonstrated the antiquity of this domestication of the dog. The study of canid assemblages from prehistoric sites will allow us to address the importance fossil dogs and wolves had for prehistoric people. We will test different hypotheses to infer the several roles the large canids played in the life of prehistoric people.
01/04/2012 to 30/09/2017

CORES: Comparing regionality and sustainability in Pisidia, Boeotia, Picenum and NW Gaul between Iron and Middle Ages (1,000 BC - AD 1,000)

The aim of the project is to approach the concepts of regionality and sustainability in four ancient regions, Pisidia, Boeotia, Picenum and NW Gaul, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, through the interdisciplinary study of long-term waves of regional change and development in a comparative framework.
01/10/2011 to 01/10/2015

Palaeodemographic and palaeopathological study of the St.Romboutscemetery, Mechelen

Doctoral thesis by Katrien Van de Vijver at the Faculty of Sciences KU Leuven on the human skeletons found in the St.Romboutscemetery in Mechelen, dated between the 11th and 18th centuries AD.
01/01/2007 to 31/12/2014

Archaeosciences applied to sites in the Brussels Capital Region

Archaeozoological, archaeobotanical and anthropological analyses on sites from the Brussels-Capital Region in order to reconstruct the former environment, agricultural practices, human diet and health, and funerary practices.
01/01/2010 to 31/12/2014

The former occurrence of sturgeon in the North Sea: the contribution of archaeozoology and ancient DNA

Doctoral thesis by Els Thieren at the Faculty of Sciences KU Leuven on the identification of the sturgeon species occurring in the North Sea during prehistoric and historic times. The study material includes both modern and archaeological specimens.
01/01/2005 to 31/12/2014

Archaeosciences applied to sites in Wallonia

Set up of an expert team in archaeosciences dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of sites in Wallonia.The team members assist the archaeologists in the field and, through their lab analyses, assure the reconstruction of the former environment and subsistence practices.The team collaborates to the preparation of publications and exhibits.
01/10/2011 to 30/09/2014

Divergent pathways to early food production and early complex societies: archaeozoological data from northeastern Africa

Through archaeozoological analyses the project aims at demonstrating that possible pathways to food production, resulting in the rise of complex societies and probably the most important development in human history, are very diverse and that the models from Eurasia are not valid in Africa. The role of the natural environment is thereby tested.
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